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1)Transgenesis in animals is usually done by microinjection
2)In this method, multiple copies of the transgenes are injected in to the pronucleus of a fertilized egg by the use of a glass micro pipette with a diameter much smaller than the cell itself.
3)The sharp tip can puncture cell membrane and the DNA is then injected through it and into the nucleus
4)The transformed egg is cultured and the embryo is implanted into the surrogate mother.
1)Using the gene gun method is a way of introducing the foreign DNA into the plant cells by literally shooting it directly through the thick cellulose walls. It was initially the one that would work with monocotyledons
2)Microscopic particles of gold or tungsten
are coated with the transgenes and propelled by a burst of helium through the plant cell walls
3)With this, some of the cells express the introduced DNA as if it were their own. The introduced DNA also carries a gene for antibiotic resistance. The plant tissue is placed on an antibiotic agar plate so only the transgenic cells can survive and grow. This would require hormones and nutrients to be supplied.
1)Choose a disease free plant and cut out a leaf disc
2)Then dip the selected leaf disc into a culture which contains the Agrobacterium Tumifaciens bacterium that has been genetically modified to carry a gene that is to be inserted into the chosen plant.
3)Place the leaf discs (explants) on an